Pruning cuts must be made with an understanding of how the tree will respond to the cut. Improper pruning can cause damage which continues for the life of the tree. Proper crown thinning should maintain the structural beauty and retain the tree's natural shape.
The preferred place to make a pruning cut is just to the outside of the branch collar allowing for compartmentalization of the cut wound. If a pruning cut leaves a stub, the ability of the tree to close the wound is compromised and can result in branch dieback, decay, and sprout production. Topping, or cutting limbs back to a stub, bud, or a lateral branch not large enough to assume the terminal role may promote starvation, shock, insects & disease, rapid new weaker elongated growth, increased future cost from higher maintenance tree.